看國外 | John Gadd:非洲豬瘟終篇(3)-堅不可摧的豬場長什么樣?

看國外 2019-01-21 10:04:46

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John Gadd

In previous contributions, pig management expert John Gadd gave a long checklist on how to be prepared as a swine farmer, should African Swine Fever occur in the direct vicinity. Now what does that look like in practice? Here is a design.

前面的文章中,養豬管理專家John Gadd已經列出了一份長長的清單,告訴養豬戶,萬一附近地區發生了非洲豬瘟,應該怎么辦。那么,在實踐中這樣的豬場是什么樣的?以下是一種設計。

This layout goes a long way to defend the unit from any inward disease – such as the current threat of African Swine Fever (ASF).

這種布局可以很好地保護豬場,不受外來疾病侵襲,比如目前面臨的威脅——非洲豬瘟。

I suggest you study it carefully and compare your own premises and layout to it.

建議大家仔細研究,并和自家的豬場布局對比一下。

Some of the ideas you will not be able to accomplish due to feasibility and cost. Others, as several producers have found, have been possible and after taking a deep breath have been affordable. Those considering a new unit should design in all the suggestions, everyone. Those expanding an existing unit would be well advised for their future security against incoming disease, to follow as many as they can.

出于可行性及成本考量,有些想法可能實現不了。但是,幾位養豬戶反應,其余的條件是可以實現的,并且勒緊腰帶也負擔得起。如果你正在考慮建一個新場子,那么,每一條建議都應該采取。如果是想在原基礎上擴建,那么,為了長遠地防范外來疾病,這些建議采取得越多越好。

Separating farm staff and pigs from anything outside

豬場員工和豬群應與外界一切事物隔離

The underlying principle of the design is to have an inviolate perimeter fence, so as to separate the farm staff and their pigs from any outside contact, both physical and any surface used.

這個布局的一個基本原則是設計一道堅固的圍欄,切斷豬場員工和豬群與外部的接觸,包括物理接觸及任何使用過的物品表面的接觸。

Figure 1 - ‘Fortress farm’: A biosecure layout minimising contact and contamination.

圖一 堅不可摧的豬場:減少接觸與污染的生物安全布局

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Next, the farm is divided into 2 areas, one where visitors' footwear, clothes, utensils and vehicles never cross into the areas used by the farm staff and likewise the farm staff (and of course their pigs) never travel over surfaces available to ‘outside’ individuals and their vehicles. Notice that the surfaces used by the farm staff and their vehicles (A, B and C on the plan) are fenced off securely from those surfaces used by visiting people and their vehicles, such as those delivering supplies, including bulk feeds and equipment, and others removing finished pigs for sale and any dead stock to be disposed.

其次,豬場分成兩個區域,一個供來訪者使用,他們的鞋子、衣服、工具和車輛不會進入到豬場員工的區域;同樣的,豬場員工和豬群也不會接觸到對外來者開放的區域。注意,豬場員工及其車輛可用的區域(圖示A、B、C區)已經筑起一道安全圍欄,與來訪者及其車輛(比如必需品的運送,包括飼料、設備等)隔離開,并和待出售的育肥豬、待處理的死畜所經之路隔開。

Keeping your farm staff ‘in’ their working areas is as important as keeping all others ‘out’ of them.

讓豬場員工待在他們自己的工作區域,和讓其它外部事物遠離他們一樣重要。

Visiting veterinarian

獸醫來訪

Only the visiting veterinarian is allowed in (via the staff showers) but it is essential that he leaves his vehicle either off the farm or in the visitor’s car park, and his equipment enters via the delivery’s drop-off point. The same goes for other outside professionals – electricians, plumbers, ventilationists and those needed to fix equipment and computers must only enter by the staff entry facilities.

只允許獸醫(經過員工沐浴通道)進入豬場,但他必須把車停在遠離豬場的地方或者來訪者指定停車處,他的工具經由指定入口送入。其他外部專業人員也是如此,電工、水管工、通風設備維修工、其它設備維修工及電腦維修人員,只能從員工入口進入豬場。

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Birds and rodents can in theory get into a well-protected farm. This needs attention too! Photo: 123RF.com

理論上,鳥類和嚙齒動物也可以進入一個保護良好的豬場,這也應當引起注意。

Of course rodents and birds can transgress these barriers – the answer is to appoint both a rodent controller member of the staff, and have another one responsible for bird control.

當然,嚙齒動物和鳥類可以越過這些屏障,解決辦法是任命一名專職人員對嚙齒動物進行控制,同時另外聘請一名負責控制鳥類的工作人員。

【相關閱讀】

看國外 | John Gadd:如何讓豬場遠離非洲豬瘟?(1)

看國外 | John Gadd:預防非洲豬瘟(2) -如何打造堅不可摧的豬場

(文/愛豬網記者劉坤穎編譯,愛豬網原創請勿轉載)


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