看國外 | 全球養豬專家分享抗擊非洲豬瘟的經驗

看國外 2019-08-07 14:34:15

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A group of swine professionals will describe their field experience and perspective gained while fighting against African Swine Fever.

一群專業養豬人士介紹他們在抗擊非洲豬瘟過程中獲得的實地經驗和觀點。

Our industry is facing a global threat due to the spread of the African Swine Fever virus (ASF). As the experiences with the disease grow, we at the 333pigsite wanted to collaborate as much as possible with industry professionals to share their perspective on managing the challenges. This article is the first of a series that will describe the field experience and perspectives gained while fighting ASF. Our interviewed swine professionals include an international production consultant, veterinarians from the Baltics and Poland, and a reference laboratory specialist based in Russia. Let’s learn from their different experiences and perspectives.

由于非洲豬瘟病毒(ASF)的傳播,我們的行業正面臨全球性的威脅。隨著疾病治療經驗的增長,Pig333希望盡可能多地與業內專業人士合作,分享他們應對挑戰的觀點。本文描述在對抗ASF過程中獲得的現場經驗和觀點。我們采訪的養豬專家包括一位國際生產顧問、分別來自波羅的海和波蘭的獸醫,以及一位駐俄羅斯的參考實驗室專家。讓我們從他們不同的經歷和觀點中學習。

All four of our swine specialists agreed that this is a very worrisome moment for the swine industry. Mr Corns, a North American consultant, that is now based in Europe, has been working for more than 10 years across the EU, Asia (mostly China), and Russia. He advises large vertically integrated customers on production and biosecurity. Mr Corns rates ASF as the number one problem in these regions. He quoted his colleague Dr. Adrian Balaban from Romania who said that, at this point, "you don’t have to be infected to be affected by ASF". He highlighted his concern that the focus on addressing ASF has changed from a regional to a global scale.

我們的四位養豬業專家一致認為,這對養豬業來說是一個非常令人擔憂的時刻。科恩斯是北美一名咨詢師,目前常駐歐洲。他在歐盟、亞洲(主要是中國)和俄羅斯工作了10多年。他為大型垂直整合客戶提供生產和生物安全方面的咨詢。科恩斯將非洲豬瘟列為這些地區的頭號問題。他引用了來自羅馬尼亞的同事Adrian Balaban博士的話,他說,在這一點上,“感染非瘟并不是受影響的必要條件。”他強調了他的想法,即解決非瘟的重點已從區域范圍轉變為全球范圍。

Dr Cepulis is an experienced swine vet. consultant with customers in the Baltic countries of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia and parts of Belarus. He highlights that his clients perceive the disease as a major threat that can quickly lead their farms to bankruptcy. At the same time, he highlights that backyard farmers and hunters are not very concerned with the spread of the disease. In his opinion, the key to the epidemiology and prevention of the disease in this heavily forested region of the EU is the control of wild boar population. He also pointed out that, in Estonia, professional hunters were able to decrease the wild boar population significantly and they did not experience any domestic swine outbreaks last year. In Lithuania and Latvia , during the same time period, the hunting was conducted by non-professional hunting clubs and the subsequent numbers of wild boar remain high. He thinks that the risk of ASF for domestic pigs in Lithuania and Latvia is higher as a result of this difference.

Cepulis博士是一位經驗豐富的養豬獸醫。為波羅的海國家立陶宛、拉脫維亞、愛沙尼亞和白俄羅斯部分地區的客戶提供咨詢服務。他強調說,他的客戶認為這種疾病是一個重大威脅,可能很快導致他們的農場破產。與此同時,他強調,后院的農民和獵人并不十分擔心這種疾病的傳播。在他看來,在這個森林茂密的歐盟地區,控制野豬數量是流行病學和預防該病的關鍵。他還指出,在愛沙尼亞,職業獵人能夠顯著減少野豬的數量,而且他們去年沒有經歷過任何國內爆發的野豬疫情。在立陶宛和拉脫維亞,在同一時期,狩獵是由非職業狩獵俱樂部進行的,后來野豬的數量仍然很高。他認為,由于這種差異,立陶宛和拉脫維亞的生豬患非瘟的風險更高。

Dr Karbowiak is a member of the biggest swine veterinary clinic in Poland. Even though he also perceives ASF to be the most important problem in his country, they “don’t panic about the disease anymore” like they used to 3 years ago with the first outbreaks in his area. With clients in Poland and Ukraine, he visits a big range of farms, from back yard producers, with no more than 30 sows, to large facilities that may house up to 3000 sows. He is used to dealing with the consequences of having nearby outbreaks. He is the only practitioner in his clinic that has diagnosed an outbreak in a finishing facility. The goal of his clinic is to continue to keep all their clients free of ASF even though the virus is present and active in his country.

Karbowiak博士是波蘭最大的豬獸醫診所的成員。盡管他也認為非洲豬瘟是波蘭面臨最重要的問題,他們“不再像三年前第一次爆發時那樣對這種疾病感到恐慌”。與波蘭和烏克蘭的客戶一起,他參觀了大量的農場,從僅有不超過30頭母豬的后院生產者,到可能容納3000頭母豬的大型設施。他習慣于處理附近爆發疫情帶來的后果。他是他診所里唯一一個在育肥豬舍里診斷出疾病爆發的醫生。他的診所的目標是繼續讓所有的客戶遠離非洲豬瘟,哪怕這種病毒在波蘭存在并且很活躍。

Our final specialist is Dr Kolbasov who is the current director of the Russian reference center for ASF research and diagnostics based in the Vladimir region central part of Russia. Since 2007, Dr. Kolbasov has been directly involved in the diagnostics and investigation of all outbreaks reported in Russia. His ASF experience includes wild boars and also a wide range of industry segments including all types of swine farms, processing plants, and slaughter plants. He also agrees with the significant importance of this disease, which also carries the nickname of "trade disease". He notes that the level of concern in his region will depend on how dependent the region is on trade - “If the region is not interested in the external market, unfortunately, this will not be a concern for those swine producers”- says Dr. Kolbasov. On the other hand, he sees ASF as a good indicator of the real farm biosecurity level. He is proud to say that producers have learnt a lot and improved from this experience. He explained to us that the lack of ASF outbreaks in certain areas has been used as an indicator of biosecurity improvements and, consequently, as a good indicator of the overall health improvement of Russian swine herds.

最后一位專家是科爾巴索夫博士,他是位于俄羅斯中部弗拉基米爾地區的非洲豬瘟研究和診斷俄羅斯參考中心的現任主任。自2007年以來,科爾巴索夫博士一直直接參與俄羅斯報告的所有疫情的診斷和調查工作。他關于非瘟的經驗包括野豬,以及廣泛的行業部門,包括所有類型的養豬場、加工廠和屠宰場。他也同意這種疾病的重要性,也有“貿易疾病”的綽號。他指出,該地區的擔憂程度將取決于該地區對貿易的依賴程度。科爾巴索夫博士說:“不幸的是,如果該地區對外部市場不感興趣,這些養豬戶就不會擔心。”另一方面,他認為非洲豬瘟是衡量農場生物安全水平的良好指標。他很自豪地說,生產商從這次經歷中學到了很多,并得到了改善。他向我們解釋說,某些地區沒有爆發非瘟疫情,故被用作生物安全改善的指標,因此,也被用作俄羅斯豬群整體健康改善的良好指標。

Except for Mr. Corns’ Chinese experience, all the regions represented by our swine specialists were initially affected due to outbreaks in wild boars. However, the event that was responsible for the transmission of the virus into commercial outbreaks varied between these regions.

除了科恩斯先生的中國經驗,我們的養豬專家所代表的所有地區最初都受到野豬疫情的影響。然而,導致病毒傳播到商業暴發的事件在這些區域之間各不相同。

Dr. Karbowiak shared that the main event responsible for moving the disease from wild boars on the border of Belarus, 3 years after it was first detected in wild boars, was the illegal movement of pigs. This movement transmitted the virus into commercial facilities that were 100 km away and, consequently, the virus spread between farms from the North to South of Eastern Poland towards the Vistula River (a highly concentrated wild boar area).

Karbowiak博士說,在白俄羅斯邊境的野豬中首次發現這種疾病三年后,導致這種疾病從野豬中傳播的主要原因是非法的生豬遷徙。這一運動將病毒傳播到100公里以外的商業設施,因此,病毒在波蘭東部北部和南部的農場之間向維斯圖拉河(高度集中的野豬區)傳播。

Having worked in Russia since before ASF entered the country in 2007, Dr. Kolbasov has many years of experience and he can describe in detail the initial chain of outbreaks in that country. These outbreaks started in the Chechnya region (i.e. the low swine density border region with Georgia) in 2007, and then jumped to the North Ossetia region of Russia affecting many commercial farms. His experience "tells him" that, when the virus gets into commercial farms it is not difficult to eradicate the disease from the area. However, the problem gets more challenging in regions where there is a high density of backyard farms that may occupy many hectares and frequently have lower biosecurity standards. Dr. Cepulis agrees with this epidemiologic scenario and the role of wild boars. He describes summers as the worst season for ASF transmission between domestic backyard production and wild boars in the Baltic countries.

自2007年非洲豬瘟傳入俄羅斯之前,Kolbasov博士就一直在俄羅斯工作,他有多年的經驗,能夠詳細描述該國最初的疫情鏈。這些暴發始于2007年車臣地區(即與格魯吉亞接壤的低豬密度邊境地區),然后蔓延到俄羅斯北奧塞梯地區,影響了許多商業農場。他的經驗“告訴他”,當病毒進入商業農場時,從該地區根除這種疾病并不困難。然而,在后院農場密度高、占地面積大、生物安全標準往往較低的地區,這一問題變得更具挑戰性。Cepulis博士同意這種流行病學的觀點和野豬的作用。他將夏季描述為國內后院生產和波羅的海國家野豬之間傳播非瘟的最糟糕季節。

Finally, Mr. Corns points out the difference in the epidemiology of the disease in China and Romania. In China, there is not a significant number of wild boars playing a part in transmission and very large commercial facilities with high biosecurity are being infected. In Romania, there is a combination of wild boars, backyard farms, and large systems that are all being infected, and this combination is making the control of the disease one of the most difficult in EU. He highlights that carrying out a proper outbreak investigation on every case has been very valuable for their clients to identify biosecurity gaps.

最后,科恩斯指出了這種疾病在中國和羅馬尼亞流行病學上的差異。在中國,野豬在傳播過程中所起的作用并不大,而且有非常大的商業設施和高生物安全性正在受到感染。在羅馬尼亞,野豬、后院農場和大型系統都受到感染,這使得控制這種疾病成為歐盟最困難的問題之一。他強調,對每一個病例開展適當的疫情調查對其客戶查明生物安全漏洞非常有價值。

文章來源:Pig333

(文/愛豬網記者劉坤穎編譯,愛豬網原創,轉載請注明出處)


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